Thursday, March 11, 2010
Monday, August 3, 2009
1. Bio data of Dr S. P. Srivastava
3. Date and place of birth
4. Present position/designation Independent Consultant
5. Address with tele. Sector 7C, house No 989, Faridabad-121006, Haryana
Tele 0129-4080989, Cell No 9810180695
6. Academic qualifications
7. Positions, Jobs and assignments held
Junior Research Fellow CSIR,
Scientist B/C, CFRI, Dhanbad & RRL,
Senior Research officer Indian oil R&D center 1973-1977
Deputy Manager (Research) DO 1977-1980
Manager Research DO 1980-1982
Senior Research Manager DO 1982-1986
Chief Research Manager DO 1986-1990
Deputy General Manager DO 1090-1995
General Manager DO 1995-1998
Executive Director DO 1998-2000
And ex officio Director of Indian oil Blending Ltd, Mumbai
President (Technical) and Director technical to Iftex Oils and Chemicals, Mumbai
Advisors to IBP, Gurgaon and Balmer Lawrie, Kollkata,
Presently,2007 onward. Self employed consultant
24 Indian and US patents
Over 200 research papers on the subject of Coal, Fuels, Lubricants and Ultrasonics
Four Books on
1. Free radicals -1974 ,Publisher UP Govt.,
2. High polymers- 1972, Pub, S.Chand,
3. Modern Lubricant technology- 2007, Pub. Technology publisher, Dehradun,
4. Advances in lubricant additives and Tribology-2008, Pub. Techniz,
9. Edited work
A. Chief Editor, proceeding of symposium on Analytical Techniques for fossil fuels and
Lubricants, 369 pages, 1992
B. Editor, proceeding of International Symposium on Fuels and Lubricants
C. Chief Editor, proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Fuels and Lubricants
D. Ultrasonic in service of humanity, Science Reporter 1969
E. Dev of Chemistry in Ancient
F. Ultrasonics in the service of science and Industry, Mines and Mineral
Review, Vol.IX, NO.7, 15, 1970
G. Synthetic Lubricants in
10. Particulars of the memberships in academic/societies/professional bodies
A. Elected Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum
B. Member of Society of Tribologist and Lubrication Engineers (Formerly American
Society of Lubrication Engineers) ,
C. Life member Indian Society of Analytical Scientists
D. Life member Tribology Society of India
E.Life member Administrative Staff College of India
11. Awards Won
A, UP Government Literary award for the Book on Free Radicals (Hindi), 1975-76
B. NPMP (Ministry of petroleum and natural Gas,
Developing Lubricants. 1988-1999
C. NPMP (Ministry of petroleum and natural gas) innovation and creativity award for
developing Lubricants- team category 1999-2000
D. NPMP (Ministry of petroleum and natural gas) Innovation and Creativity award for
Developing Lubricants. 2000-2001
E. N K Mehra memorial Life time achievement award at IIT Mumbai,
LIST OF PATENTS OF DR S P SRIVASTAVA ANNEXURE 1
- A process for the recovery of microbial cells from SCP broth Indian Patent No.120868,1969
- A process for the production of Protein concentrate, Indian patent No 125137,1770
- A process for the recovery of silver and gelatin from waste photofilms.Indian Patent No.126770,1970
- A process for the manufacture of domestic water filter candle, Indian Patent No.125357,1970
- A new design for instant cartridge water filter, Indian patent No.126508,1970
- Slow acting fertilizer, Indian patent No.247/72, 1972
- Slow acting urea formaldehyde resins, Indian patent No 246/72, 1972
- Micro encapsulation of liquids, Indian Patent No783/cal/73 , 1973
- Pressure sensitive adhesive compositions, Indian Patent No--- 1972
(The above technologies were developed in RRL , Jorhat and commercialized),
- Improved gear oil compositions, Indian patent No 148995, 1979
- Process for the manufacture of cylinder oils, Indian patent No.149105,1979
- Rock drill Lubricating oil formulations, Indian Patent No.151270,1980
- Lubricating oil compositions for air compressors, Indian Patent No.151316,1979
- Process for the preparation of Borate esters, Indian patent No.156195,1982
- Lubricating oil concentrate, Indian patent No.156340,1982
- Lubricant composition for Industrial chains, Indian patent No171811, 1989
- A novel grease composition, Indian patent No, 171321, 1989
- Multi grade Lubricating oil composition, Indian patent No,555/del/1994
- High performance crankcase oil composition for medium speed diesel, Indian Patent No,201/BOM/1995
- Lubricating oils for medium speed diesel, Indian Patent No,362/BOM/1995
- Energy efficient industrial gear oil compositions, Indian Patent,No478/BOM/1995
- Textile spindle oil compositions, Indian patent No,479/BOM/1995
- Multigrade crankcase oil compositions, Indian Patent No544/BOM/1995
- Multifunctional Fuel additive composition, Patent filed 2002
SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION MADE BY DR S P SRIVASTAVA
.My major contribution in the field of science and technology is the development of world class Lubricant technology, which is today marketed by Indian Oil under the brand name of SERVO. This brand name is now a well established name in
Till 1974, the entire Lubricant technology in
Initial laboratory work involved the understanding the science of Friction, Wear and Lubrication from basic fundamental angle. The research on Lubricants involves the manufacture of base fluids in the refinery and then formulating the products to impart various properties like detergency, dispersancy,antioxidation,anticorrosion,antiwear, antirust, antifoam, load carrying , extreme pressure properties and suitable low temperature and high temperature rehological properties by using a variety of chemical additives. There are several hundreds of parameters which need to be controlled to get effective products. The products need to be tested in actual equipments like engines, marine ship, aircraft, steel plants, fertilizer plants etc for several thousand hours to make it fit for long use.
In nutshell, the fundamental principles of Science and Tribology were applied to generate world class technology and products. These products are commercialized under the brand name of SERVO and their current value is about Rs 4000 crores per year.
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF DR SP SRIVASTAVA ANNEXURE 3
In national and International Indexed Journals
- A relation between Ultrasonic velocity and viscosity in aqueous solution of silver nitrate, Ind. J. Chem,2,12,499,1964
- Ultrasonic velocity in aqueous solution of thorium nitrate,Vig.Anu.Patrika, Hindi 7,4,117,1964
- Structural studies of EDTA metal chelates by Ultrasonic waves,Z.Physik.Chemie,vol61,No3,247,1968
- Ultrasonic studies of aminoacids,Z.Physik.Chemie,70,219,1969
- Structural studies of Chelates by Ultrasonic waves, J.Phys.
,70,3325,1966 Chem,, USA
- Ultrasonic studies of Sulphosalicylic acid Chelates, Acoustika,19,2,98,1967-68
- A relation between Ultrasonic velocity and viscosity of aqueous solution of electrolytes, Bull,
,39,1,31,1966 Chem.Soc, Japan
- A method for the calculation of stability constant from ultrasonic velocity method,Ind.J.Chem,6,1,31,1968
- Ultrasonic velocity studies in chelate forming systems,Z.Physik.Chemie,231,310,1966
- Ultrasonic studies in Electrolytic mixtures,Z.Physik,Chemie,50,3/4,1966
At CSIR Laboratories in CFRI and RRL Jorhat 1966-1972
11 Physicochemical studies on the petroleum –yeast-emulsion system J, applied Chemistry,
12, Incorporation of solid Hydrocarbons into culture media,J. Fermentation technology
13. Production of single cell protein and by-product recovery of surface active compound, J. Fermentation technology,Japan,49,6,1971
14.Influence of non ionic surface active agents on the production of viscous crude oil, Ind.J. Technology,Vol II,7,244-297,1974
15. Problems in crude oil production technology, Petroleum and Hydrocarbon,Vol 7,1,17-22,1972
16. A Method for the estimation of paraffins in gas oil during microbial fermentation,J.Inst. Of Chemists Vol XLV,partV, 174-177,1973
17. Micro encapsulation of liquids and solids by gelatin coacervate,Chem Era,Nov.1974
18. Surface active properties of petroleum sulphonates obtained from lube oil acids sludges,J. Assam Sci. Soc. No 7,294-297, 1971
19.Railway Journal Box- Aspect of its Lubrication. American Society of Lubrication,Vol 39,10,631-639,1983
20 Oxidation Stability of Steam turbine oils and Laboratory method of evaluation. American Society of Lubrication,Vol 40,2,89-95,1984.
21. An accelerated aging test for aniwear Hydraulic oils,J. Society of Tribologist and Lubrication Engineers,
22. Studies on additive-additive interaction: formulation of crankcase oils towards rationalization, . Wear (Elsevier),156,101-120,1992
23. Studies on Additive-additive interaction:Effect of Dispersant and Antioxidant additives on the Synergistic combination of overbased Sulphonate and ZDDP,Lubrication Science,7-1, 25-38, Oct. 1994.
24. Analysis of Cold Rolling Oils by MR and IR Techniques, J. Society of Tribologist and Lubrication Engineers,
25. Determination of Trace amount of Morpholine and its thermal dehradation Products in Boiler Water by HPLC,Chromatographia,Vol 35,No 3-4,173-176,1993
26. Hot Tube Test--- To simulate deposit forming tendencies in IC engines. Ind.Chem.Soc. Vol71,85-88,Feb 1994.
27. Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Proton NMR, Energy and Fuels(American Chemical Society),9,574-579,1995
28. Structural- Performance relationship of Viscosity Index Improvers, Lubrication Science,8-1,49-60,Oct 1995.
29. A Simple Gas Chromatographic method for the analysis of oxygenates in Gasolines.Chromatographia, Vol.40,No 9/10,607-610,May 1995.
30. Modified method for Hydrocarbon type analysis of blended base oils by IR spectroscopy, Fuel (Elsevier Science),Vol 74, No9,1343-1346,1995
31. Characterization of Nitrogen and Phosphorous compounds in a multifunctional lubricant additive by NMR and IR Techniques,J. Soc. Of Tribologist and Lubrication Engineers,
32. A new test Rig for oil evaluation in Textile Spindles,Soc,Tribologist and Lubrication engineers,
33. Hydrocarbon Characterization of Hydrocracked base stocks by one- and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy, Fuel (Elsevier Science),Vol 75, No 4, 483-490,1996
34. Carbon Type analysis of Hydrotreated and conventional lube- base oils by IR Spectroscopy, Fuel (Elsevier Sci.), Vol 75, No 12, 1471-1475,1996.
35. Dependence of oxidation stability of steam turbine oils on base oil composition, Lubrication
36.Hot oil oxidation test-A laboratory simulation of ASM Seq IIID/IIIE Engine tests Tribotest J. ,3-4,407-414, June 1997.
37. Detailed Characterization of poly alphaolefines and their branched structures using multi-pulse NMR techniques, J. Synthetic Lubrication,15-3,177-190,1998.
38. Prediction of Biodegradability of mineral base oils from Chemical Composition Using Artificial Neural Networks, Tribology International (Elsevier Sci),Vol 31,No 4,159-168,1998.
39. Estimation of Total Aromatics and their distribution as Mono and Di plus Aromatics in Diesel range by NMR Spectroscopy, Energy and Fuels (American Chemical Soc.),12,1223-1227,1998.
40. Determination of Calcium, Zinc, and Phosphorous in Multigrade crankcase oils by XRF,DRES and ICP-AES, Tribotest journal,5-2,115-120,Dec 1998.
41. Detailed characterization of Heavy Alkylated Benzene fluids by Multi pulse 2 dimensional NMR spectroscopy, J. Synthetic Lubrication, 17-1, 41-54, 2000.
Research Papers in National and International Seminars Organized by me to enable our Scientists to attend an International level Seminars and give them opportunities to present papers. Based on this work, large Numbers of products were developed.
42.Determination of Motor Gasoline RON by Proton NMR Spectroscopy, Proceedings of 9th national symposium on analytical techniques for fossil fuels and Lubricants, New Delhi,Dec 22-24,1992,Page 103.
43. Hydrocarbon type Characterization of vacuum gas oil by NMR and Mass spectroscopy, Ibid, page 112
44. Gas Chromatographic procedure for determination of residual hydrazine---
Ibid, Page 194.
45. Characterization of alkyl phenol- PEG condensates and estimation of average properties by NMR/IR techniques, ibid, page 228.
46. Lubricants Oxidation products- IR spectroscopy studies, ibid, page 234.
47. Differential Calorimetric studies on Greases, Ibid page 247.
48. Coulter multisided as a tool to study sludge forming tendency of a antiwear hydraulic oil, Ibid, page 264.
49. Role of Radiotracer in Lubrication science, Ibid, Page 268.
50. Determination of Rehological properties of automotive engine oils, Ibid, page 272.
51. Monitoring of hydrocarbon pollutants in workplace environment by portable GC, Ibid, Page 299.
52. Synthetic Lubricant Scenario and Growth in
53. Superior high performance crankcase oil for medium speed diesel engines, Ibid, page 41-46
54. Experience with the development of a semi synthetic cutting fluid for aluminum machining, ibid, page 61-66.
55. Development of a pump test to evaluate the filterability of Hydraulic oils, Ibid, page 123-128.
56. Turbine oil field performance- higher the oxidation stability better the retention of original properties, ibid, page 136-141
57. Water resistance of Hydraulic brake fluid components, Ibid, page 178-183.
58. Estimation of polynuclear aromatics in diesel range products by 2D-NMR spectroscopy, ibid, page 302-309.
59. Development of low dosage two- stroke engine oil and catalytic converter for cleaner environment, Ibid page 327-332.
60. Biodegradable Lubricants, how they turn Grey into Greens, Ibid page 369-374.
61. Estimation of gasoline properties by FTIR spectroscopy, ibid, page 398-403.
62. Base oils from non lube bearing crudes mix through hydro processing, ibid, page 439-444.
63. NMR studies on the effects of branching on physical properties of hydro cracked base oils, Ibid, page 451-457.
64. Hydrocarbon type analysis of base oils by HPLC using response factors generated by Artificial Neural Network, Ibid, page 458-463.
65. A new viscosity- temperature relationship for liquid Lubricant and its verification with experimental data, Proceedings of 6th International congress on Tribology,
66. Storage stability of unleaded gasoline of Indian refineries, Proceedings of 3rd International petroleum conf, Petrotech 99,
67. Estimation of Bromine No of petroleum distillates by NMR Spectroscopy, Ibid, page 39-42
68. Determination of Mercury and arsenic in ppb levels in Naphtha, Ibid, page 43-46
69. Development of diesel fuel stabilizers- a case study, ibid, page 47-50
70. Use of multifunctional additives in diesel fuels for injector cleanliness and fuel economy, Ibid, page 61-64.
71. Indian ATF for modern Russian fighter aircrafts- a feasibility study, Ibid, page 117-119.
72. Volatile organic compounds in petroleum Industry, Ibid, page 127-130.
73. Oxidative desulphurization of diesel fuels- an alternative approach to deep hydrodesulphurization, Ibid, page 135-138.
74. Heavy fuel oil quality for DG sets- an Indian Scenario, Ibid, page 139-142.
75. Longer life antiwear turbine oils-a right choice for new generation Turbines, Ibid, page 203-208.
76. Determination of composition of borate ester of glycols using near- IR spectroscopy&PLS analysis, Ibid, page 259-262.
77. Hydrocarbon group type analysis of heavy petroleum residue by TLC-FID technique, Ibid, page 263-266.
78. Simultaneous estimation of antioxidant and metal- deactivator in commercial hydraulic brake fluids, Ibid, page 267-270.
79. Recycling of automotive engine coolants- options before the Industry, Ibid, page 271-274.
80. Industrial Tribology management system and its role in establishing the life of lubricants, ibid, page 275-280.
81. Frictional properties of Greases in rolling element bearings, ibid, page 329-333.
82. Indian perspective of auto engine oil specifications- Race against the moving target, Ibid, page 335-340.
83. High performance potentials of a natural gas engine oil- rationale drawn from Lab to field, Ibid, page 369-372.
84. Development of indigenous hardware based GL-5 auto gear oil test rig- a capability assessment, Ibid, page 381-385.
85. NMR Spectroscopy- a potential tool to assess the carcinogenicity of virgin mineral base oil, Ibid, page 387-390.
86. Development of a test method for antiscore characteristics of auto gear oils, Ibid, page 391-384.
87. Novel process for the regeneration of H2S contaminated costly compressor oil, Ibid, page 399-402.
88. Lubricants and Fuel Scenario in the new millennium- an Indian perspective- Key note paper, Proc. Of 2nd International symposium on Fuels and Lubricants, Allied Publisher,
89. Effect of base oil composition on the performance of automotive and Industrial lubricants, Ibid. page 53-64.
90. Multifunctional additives for gasoline- need for rationalization of testing protocols, Ibid, page 93-99.
91. An improved metal compatibility test for circulating oils, Ibid, page 107-112.
92. Frictional Characteristics of hydraulic oils in Vickers vane pump, ibid, 119-124.
93. A new quality compressor oil with antiwear performance, Ibid, page 143-148.
94. Modified calcium complex long life greases for steel mills, Ibid, page 205-211.
95. Gasoline quality; some issues, Ibid, page 227-231.
96. Lubricity of low sulphur Indian diesel fuels, ibid, page 265-270
97. Significance of high performance brake fluids for modern automobile applications, ibid, page 319-324.
98. Automotive engine coolants: anticorrosive properties and their evaluation, ibid, page 325-330.
99. Short residue emulsion- An alternate to fuel oil, Ibid, Vol 2, Page 467-471.
100. Frothing tendency of rolling oils and its correlation with interfacial and thermal properties, Ibid, page 525-530.
101. Refregeration compressor Lubricants and assessment of its tribological properties, ibid, page 555-560.
102. Performance evaluation and residual life assessment of a superior medium speed diesel engine oil for stationary power generation, Ibid, page 595-600.
103. Evaluation of a high performance Multigrade rail road engine oil: Rationale from lab to field, Ibid, page 601-608.
104. Study of exhaust smoke and emission of Indian two stroke engine Lubricant, Ibid, page 713-718.
105. Development of energy efficient lighting devices, Ibid, Page 737-744.
106. Enviornmental friendly Lubricants – Indian efforts, Ibid, page 775-780.
107.Significance of high quality base stocks for formulating turbine oils, Proceedings of International symposium on production and application of base stocks, Nov 23-25,
108. Hydrocarbon type analysis by high resolution mass spectroscopy, Iid, page 263-271.
109. The role of thermal and high temperature gas chromatographic techniques in the characterization of base oil blends, Ibid, page 272-279.
110. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of base oils by HPLC and UV spectrophotometric techniques, Ibid, page 295-302.
111.Effect of base oil composition on the course of additive- additive interactions, Ibid, page 334-341.
112. Environment friendly base fluids for Lubricants, Ibid, page 362-376.
113.A statistical method for establishing wear control benefits with a properly balanced Multigrade rail road diesel engine oil, Proceedings of the XI national conf on Industrial Tribology, Jan 22-25, 1995, New Delhi, Tata McGraw hill, page243-248.
114.Soluble oil emulsion with improved bioresistance- A case study, Ibid, page 543-548.
115. A new Eco friendly textile loom lubricant, Ibid, Page 575-580.
116.Synthetic Lubricant Scenario in 21st Century, Key note paper ,proceeding of 2nd international conference on Industrial Tribology,
117.Tribo testing and its role in establishing the service life of lubricants, Ibid, page 342-360.
118.Development in Air Compressor Lubricating oils,3rd International seminar on development in the automotive industry, fuels and lubricant, Misr Petroleum Corporation,
119.Development is Industrial Gear oil technology, international seminar in
120.Wettability characteristics of medium speed diesel engine oils- an exploratory studt,4th International petroleum conf. and exhibition, Petrotech 2001, New Delhi,PS2/L/1,L070, 2001
121. Compositional benefits of API GroupII and Group III base oils for additive response,Ibid,PS2/L/3,L0-70.
122. Study of performance characteristics of two- stroke engine lubricants, Ibid,PS2/L/5,L005.
123. Surface active properties of Nonionic surfactants used in metal working fluids,Ibid,PS2/L/16,L067.
124. Specifications of energy efficient Industrial gear oil- A need for the Industry, Ibid, PS2/L/17,L068.
125. Synthetic Industrial Lubricants: An essentiality of the future, Ibid, PS2/L/18, L069.
126. Production of food grade waxes from Hydro cracker bottom of
127. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis of fuel range products and establishing structure- property relationship using NMR spectroscopy, Ibid, PS2/L/30,L037.
128. Estimation of total aromatics in diesel fuels by IR SPECTROSCOPY, Ibid,PS2/L/31, L039.
129. Speciation of
130. Determination of relative crystallinity of ZSM-5 Zeolite in catalyst by XRD, Ibid, PS2/L/36,L063.
131. Development of diesel stabilizer package- a success story, Ibid, PS2/L/37,L064.
132. Fuel adulteration- Complexities and options to combat, Ibid, PS2/L/38,L065.
133.Multi component analysis by synchronous Fluorescence of high boiling petroleum distillates, Ibid, PS4/L/7, L040.
134. Determination of molecular weight distribution parameter of polymers and additive by field desorption mass spectrometry, ibid, PS4/L9,L058.
135. Simultaneous estimation of B,P,Si,Na and K in ethandiol based automotive coolants using ICAP-AES, Ibid, PS4/L/10, L061.
136. Additive- additive interaction: An XPS study of the effect of ZDDP on the antiwear and EP characteristics of Molybdenum based additive. Ibid, PS4/L/11, L062
137. Lubricity requirement of 2T oils- an Indian point, Ibid, PS4/L12, L071.
138. Elect thermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ca,Cu,Pb,Ni, Li, Na,K and Vanadium in Naphtha, Ibid, PS4/L14, L075.
139. Compositional analysis of diesel exhausts particulate matter, Ibid, PS4/L/18, L060
Another 75 papers published and presented in National International symposium in
Training programs attended
1. Organization communication
2. R&D management systems at Administrative staff college,
3. Inernational negotiations
4. Finance for non-finance executives
5. Stress management
6. Time management
7. Advance management at
8. Quality management systems ISO 9000
9. Environment management system ISO 14000
10. Lead Assessors course for ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
11. Human resource Development
12 Corporate planning and management
Tuesday, July 28, 2009
Monday, June 30, 2008
As the term suggests, lubricant additives are meant to be added into the base oil, and are never used as such. Lubricant additives are oil soluble chemicals or mixture of several chemicals which can modify or improve the existing properties of lubricating base oil or impart completely new properties to the base oil to meet the performance requirements of the equipment in which they are used. To understand lubricant additives, it is therefore necessary to understand base oil properties and the need to modify certain characteristics of base oil through additives. Base oils are both petroleum derived and synthetic. Only about 2-3 % of total world base oils are synthetic and are used in specialized applications such as in aviation or high temperature industrial applications. Mineral base oils are produced in the refinery by processing several fractions of high boiling vacuum distillates and residue (for bright stock). These distillates as such are not useful as lubricant due to the presence of high amount of aromatics and waxes. The aromatics make them unstable and have poor viscosity -temperature characteristics. Waxes create fluidity problems and the oils have high pour points. The vacuum distillates are therefore subjected to solvent extraction by phenol or furfural or normal methyl pyrrolidone to remove aromatics followed by solvent dewaxing (by cooling with a mixture of toluene and ketone) and hydro finishing treatment to stabilize the product. These treatments, however, reduce the yield of the products. Only 1-2% of lube base oils are obtained from the crude oil. Also, all crude oils do not yield lubricating base oils.
Alternate route have been developed to produce improved quality of base oils in higher yield by using hydro-processing. Newer hydro-processing technology also allows low viscosity base oil production from paraffin wax cracking and from gas to liquid technology, which are required for the formulation of premium low viscosity and energy efficient multigrade oils like 10W- 30, 5W- 30 or 0W- 30 oils. Modern engine oils meeting API SM, ILSAC GF3/ GF4 and ACEA specifications require base oils of low volatility and higher viscosity index to achieve higher fuel economy and lower oil consumption. For 5 W- XX engine oil typical Noack volatility of 15% is required, while API group 1 base oils have volatility of about 25%. If base oils of low volatility are produced in a conventional refinery, the yield will go down considerably. The new hydro processing routes were, therefore, developed [1-7] to meet these requirements. The first catalytic dewaxing and wax isomerization technologies were introduced in 1970. Shell utilized hydro isomerization with solvent dewaxing to produce high viscosity index base oils in Europe. Mobil developed catalytic dewaxing process and combined it with solvent dewaxing unit to produce improved neutral oils. However, the yield and VI were lower due to the extraction of wax in the solvent dewaxing process. Chevron combined catalytic dewaxing with hydrocracking and hydrofininshing to develop an all hydroprocessing route for the manufacture of lubricating base oils. The first modern hydroisomerization process was commercialized by Chevron, which is an improvement over the earlier catalytic dewaxing process. Isomerization lowered the pour point of the base oils due to the branching of the long wax alkyl chains. The yield of the base oil also increased, since there was no removal of wax molecules. This process has now been accepted world wide for the manufacture of high quality base oils, since a complete range of base oils. i.e. 70N to 150 BS with high VI and good yield can be obtained in the most cost effective manner.
Similarly Exxon Mobil also developed Mobil selective dewaxing (MSDW), raffinate hydro conversion (RHC), Wax isomerization (MWI) and hydrogenation (MAXSAT) processes. In USA, currently about one third of the lubricating base oils are produced by these hydro processes, and more and more units are opting for these processes to produce higher quality base oils at the optimum cost.
Following four hydro processing technologies are available to produce improved base oils of API group II and III quality level oils:
1. Integrated solvent hydroprocessing
2. Catalytic hydroprocessing
3. Very high viscosity index (VHVI) base oils from wax hydroisomerization
4. Very high viscosity index (VHVI) base oils from fuel hydrocracker bottoms
Integrated solvent hydroprocessing
In this configuration, the hydroprocessing is incorporated in the existing lube refinery along with the solvent extraction and solvent dewaxing processes. API group II base oils can be produced by subjecting the raffinate from solvent extraction unit to hydroconversion followed by solvent dewaxing. Solvent dewaxing route is preferred, when wax production is desired. However, if wax is not required the streams can be hydrodewaxed to increase the yield and VI. This approach is quite cost effective since the pre extraction allows the hydroprocessing at a relatively mild temperature and pressure with lower hydrogen consumption. Through this process, improved API group I base oils can also be produced by resorting to milder extraction, which offset the yield loss due to hydroprocessing. The lube yield can be further improved by introducing hydroisomerization process, which converts waxes into isoparaffins. This combination provides both API group II and group III base oils. Hydroisomerization also permits the raffinate hydro treater to operate at lower severity, which further increases the yield of base oils.
Catalytic hydro dewaxing is an alternate process to the conventional solvent dewaxing, which selectively cracks long chain paraffin wax molecules into light petroleum gases and naphtha. This process is quite cost effective and yields low pour points products. Modern catalytic dewaxing process combines both catalytic cracking and wax isomerization. Exxon- Mobil catalytic isomerization and Chevron- Texaco iso-dewaxing processes are the two main commercial processes available and several plants are in operation based on these technologies. Currently 14 MSDW and 9 MAXSAT units based on EXXON MOBIL technologies are running to produce API Group II and III base oils around the world. This process in combination with conventional solvent extraction unit produce good quality API group I base oils.
Further developments in catalyst technology led to the hydroisomerization process which selectively dewaxes the streams from lube hydrocracker to yield good quality API group II and III base oils. This configuration, however, consumes more hydrogen, but is more flexible in the selection of crudes and even non-lube crudes can be processed. Selective dewaxing process also yields higher viscosity index oils.
The process of lube base oils produced through hydrocracker and selective dewaxing processes is also being used commercially to produce good quality base oils. The lube hydro cracking step converts aromatic molecules into saturated compounds having higher VI. The loss of yield in the hydro cracker unit due to higher conversion into lighter compounds is made up by the selective dewaxing process, since it does not remove wax physically, but converts them into isoparaffins having low pour points.
Wax hydroisomerization process
Slack wax containing about 70 percent wax can be hydroisomerized to produce API group III base oils. This approach has been utilized in several refineries in Europe. However, this process yields only lower viscosity base oils.
VHVI base oils from fuel hydro cracker
Fuel hydrocracker bottoms also contain high amount of waxes which can be conveniently converted to high quality lubricating base oils by hydro dewaxing followed by hydro finishing/treatment. This process also yields low viscosity base oils of API group II and III quality.
These hydro processes convert polyaromatics into naphthenes by saturating the aromatic ring. Isomerization converts linear paraffins into branched molecules which have lower pour points. Some of the saturated compounds can also undergo ring opening and get converted to low pour point alkanes. Sulphur and nitrogen are removed by hydrogen in the form of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia.
GTL base oils
GTL ( gas to liquid) base oils are derived via one or more synthesis, transformation, rearrangement, and/or degradation processes from gaseous carbon-containing , hydrogen-containing feed stocks such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, propylene, butane, and butylenes. GTL products, obtained through Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis, when subjected to distillation, yield high boiling products, which are waxy in characteristics. These can be further subjected to catalytic hydrodewaxing or isomerization to yield good quality lubricating base stocks. Such base oils have following characteristics:
Kinetic Viscosity at 100C upto 30 cSt
Viscosity Index 130
Pour point -10 to -30 0C
Saturates > 99%
Sulphur < 5 ppm
Aromatics 0.1 %
Nitrogen < 20 ppm
Hydrodewaxing can be carried out in a process using a single step using hydrodewaxing catalyst. Compositions of GTL base oil are discussed in a US Patent . GTL base oils have certain advantages over API Group II and Group III base stocks. Higher viscosity oils up to 30 cSt at 1000C can be produced. However, API Group II and Group III base oils viscosity would range only between 15 cSt to 10 cSt at 1000 C respectively.
In an F-T process, a synthesis gas comprising a mixture of H2 and CO is catalytically converted into liquid hydrocarbons. The mole ratio of the hydrogen to the carbon monoxide may range from 0.7 to 2.5. F-T synthesis includes processes in which the catalyst is in the form of a fixed bed, a fluidized bed or as slurry. The stoichiometric mole ratio for F-T synthesis reaction is 2.0, but there are many variations. In cobalt slurry synthesis process the feed mole ratio of the H2 to CO is typically about 2.1/1. The synthesis gas consisting of a mixture of H2 and CO is bubbled up into the bottom of the slurry and reacts in the presence of the particulate catalyst to form hydrocarbons. The synthesized hydrocarbon liquid is separated from the catalyst by filtration, or centrifugation. F-T wax has an initial boiling point in the range of from 650-7500 F. and may have an end point of about 10500 F. A portion of the n-paraffin waxy feed is converted to lower boiling isoparaffins. If catalytic dewaxing is also used after isomerization/isodewaxing, some of the isomerate/isodewaxate will be hydrocracked to lower boiling material during the conventional catalytic dewaxing. Hence, it is preferred that the end boiling point of the waxy feed be above 10500 F. Hydrocracking/hydroisomerization catalyst, or lube hydrocracking (LHDC) catalysts, contain Co, Mo, Ni, W, Mo, etc., on alumina, silica, silica/alumina support. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts useful in the conversion of the n-paraffin waxy feedstocks to form the isoparaffinic hydrocarbon base oil are zeolite catalysts, like ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-12, ZSM-38, and ZSM-48. The conversion of the waxy feedstock may be conducted over a combination of Pt/zeolite beta and Pt/ZSM-23 catalysts in the presence of hydrogen. Hydrodewaxing catalyst comprises Group VIII Pt metal loaded ZSM-48. Catalyst ZSM-48 is described in US Patent . The use of such catalyst in the hydroisomerization of the waxy feedstock eliminates the need for any separate dewaxing step. Dewaxing step may be accomplished by using solvent dewaxing, catalytic dewaxing or hydrodewaxing processes. This process is carried out either on the entire hydroisomerate or on the 650-7500 F. + fraction, depending on the use of the lower cut. In solvent dewaxing, the hydroisomerate may be contacted with chilled solvents such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), mixtures of MEK/MIBK, or mixtures of MEK/toluene, and further chilled to precipitate out the higher pour point material as a waxy solid which is then separated from the solvent-containing lube oil fraction. A suitable dewaxing catalyst which will reduce the pour point of the hydro-isomerate and also provide a large yield of lube oil base stock from the hydroisomerate may be used. These include shape selective molecular sieves which, when combined with at least one catalytic metal component, have been demonstrated as useful for dewaxing petroleum oil fractions and include, ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-22 etc. The dewaxing may be carried out in a fixed, fluid or slurry bed. Typical dewaxing conditions include a temperature in the range of 400-6000 F., a pressure of 500-900 psig, H2 treat rate of 1500-3500 SCF/B for flow-through reactors and LHSV of 0.2-2.0. Following scheme is used in the production of GTL base stocks:
Natural Gas →Oxidation → Polymerization → Isomerization/ isodewaxing
Waxes ← Distillation→ Light distillates
Ultra high VI base oils
Base oils are characterized by the following properties:
Viscosity index (change of viscosity with temperature)
Aniline point (indicates aromaticity)
Carbon distribution (CA, CP, CN)
Air release value
American Petroleum Institute (API- 1509) has categorized all the base oils into five groups. These are called as Group I to Group V. All base oils are defined by their sulphur content, saturate content and viscosity index.Following table provides
the API classification of base oils. This is quite useful for the selection of base oils for the formulation of engine oils and industrial oils.
API Base Oil Categories
Category Sulphur (%) Saturates (%) Viscosity index
Group I >0.03 and/ or < 90 80 to 120
Group II <0.03 and > 90 80 to 120
Group III <0.03 and > 90 > 120
Group IV All polyalphaolefins (PAOs)
Group V All others not included in Groups I, II , III,and IV
Recently in Europe Polyinternalolefins (PIOs) have been produced by polymerizing C15- C16 internal olefins with BF3 and a proton source as catalyst. The products, thus obtained are very close to regular polyalpha olefins properties. These have been extensively evaluated in gasoline and diesel engine tests to replace PAO and European ATIEL, EELQMS have recognized PIOs as a new category Group VI oils allowing full interchangeability with Group IV PAOs, without the need to carry out additional engine testsI has, however, not included this category in their base oil interchangeability guidelines. This point should be understood in the discussions in other chapters, when discussing Group VI oils. Group VI oils are not API categories; these are European category only.
There are certain inherent properties of the base oils which can not be modified by the use of additives. These are as follows:
Air release value
These properties depend on the molecular structure of the compounds present in the base oil. However, following important properties can be conveniently modified by the use of chemical additives. These properties are also important for the lubricant performance in the equipments.
Rheological properties at low and high temperatures
1. S. J. miller, M. A. Shippey and G. M. Masada, Advances in lube base oil
manufacture by catalytic hydro processing, NPRA National fuels and lubricating
meeting, Houston, 1992.
2. S. M. Jacob, Lube base oil processing for the 21st century, 4th annual Fuels and
Lubes Asia conference, Singapore, 1998.
3. S. C. Cohen, P. D. Mack, HVI and VHVI base stocks, the world base oil
conference London, 1996.
4. W. S. Moon, Y. R. Cho, C. B. Yoon and Y. M. Park, VHVI base oils from fuel
hydro cracker bottoms, The World base oil conf. London, 1996.
5. P. K. Mukhopadhyay, Himmat Singh, Recent trend in production of lube base oils,
Proc. Int. symp. On production and application of lube base stocks, Nov. 23-
25, New Delhi, pp 7-23, 1994.
6. S. C. Gupta and S. Handa, Lube base stocks production technologies- present and
future trend, idem, pp138-148, 1994.
7. D.C. Kramer, B.K. Lok, R.R. Krug, The evolution of base oil technology, Turbine
lubrication in the 21st century, ASTM STP 1407, Eds Herguth and Warne, ASTM,
West Conshocken, PA, 2001.
8. US Patent Nos. 6,080,301; 6,090,989, and 6,165,949.
9. US Patent No. 5,075,269.
10. Baillargeon; David J. Lubricant composition with improved solvency, U S Patent,
Appl. No. 20070138053, A1, June 21, 2007.
11. F. Navarrini, M. Ciali, and R. Cooly, Polyinternalolefins, Chapter 2, page 41-43, in
Synthetics, mineral oils, and Bio-based lubricants- chemistry and technology, Ed. L.R.
Rudnick, Pub. CRC press, 2006, USA.
Sunday, June 29, 2008
These figures indicate that the growth is in Asia pacific region at the cost of all other regions. Asian market (12.38 MMT/year) is dominated by Japan, China, India and Korea.
These 40 MMT of lubricants, valued at 70 billion US dollars, require about 3.0 MMT of chemical additives to formulate more than 500 grades of products to meet automotive and Industrial requirements. The world wide manufacturing (excluding VM solubilization) capacity of lubricant additives is however, much higher i.e. 4.5 MM/year . The value of these additives in 2007 has been estimated to be about 9 billion US $. Lubricants for automotive applications constitute the major share of lubricants followed by industrial oil, metal working oil sand process oil. Following is the approximate break up of these.
Automotive oils 55%
Industrial oils 30%
Process oils 10%
Marine oils 5%
Amongst industrial oils, turbine, hydraulic, gear and compressor oils constitute major products (60%). About 15- 20 % of Industrial oils are metal working oils and 5% are greases. Lubricant Industry, in the recent years has undergone tremendous consolidation. In the year 2000, there were 12 major oil companies supplying 50% of world demand. In 2007, there are just 8 major companies supplying more than 50% of world lubricants, although, there are about 4000 companies manufacturing and supplying lubricants.